Часто в общении с инструкторами по дайвингу возникает вопрос о том, можно ли инструктору, не имеющему специальной подготовки, работать с дайверами с ограниченными возможностями здоровья. Многие инструктора сомневаются, в том, что их статус позволяет им обучать таких дайверов, не будет ли к ним претензий со стороны “родной” ассоциации, не станет ли это нарушением стандартов обучения.
Приведу выдержку из Справочника по методике обучения PADI, самой массовой ассоциации, занимающейся обучению дайвингу и подготовкой инструкторов.
Teaching Techniques – General Considerations
Some student divers have physical challenges that interferes with their ability to perform certain motor skills. Although meeting some skill performance requirements may be difficult, adaptive techniques and reasonable accommodations can be made to help individuals with physical challenges master dive skills and enjoy diving.
The overall approach is to invite anyone interested in scuba diving into a program, as long as there is a desire and the person can meet the medical screening guidelines established by the industry and leading physicians knowledgeable in dive medicine. With medical clearance, you can train people with a wide variety of challenges by focusing on their desire to dive, rather than on any disability they may have.
While the standards themselves can’t be compromised, a variety of techniques can be used to help divers meet a performance requirement. Look for reasonable and creative ways to meet the standards.
Also consider the options available in the PADI System. If a student diver is unable to meet all Open Water Diver course performance requirements, the individual may be able to earn a PADI Scuba Diver rating. Discover Scuba Diving programs may a good option for continued participation – giving someone with challenges a closely-supervised, conservative diving experience. e PADI Seal Team program easily adapts to adult participants with physical challenges, the elderly and others who require a closely-controlled experience that ful lls the desire to have fun underwater. You can help people learn to cope with limitations and better use the full extent of their abilities by establishing reasonable, and achievable goals. You have the options you need to introduce scuba to all who seek it out.
In many areas there are laws that protect people with disabilities from discrimination. If you choose not to teach people with special challenges, your policies should not unfairly exclude people from participating in snorkeling or diving activities.
As with every course, make sure all costs and services are clearly communicated to student divers before the course begins. If you anticipate that student divers may need extra sessions, specialized equipment, a sign language translator or other additional service make sure everything is clearly written out and agreed to in advance. Your service policy should be distributed and agreed to by all student divers in all courses, equally.
If you welcome people with physical challenges into your courses, you have a responsibility to inform them about general diving risks as well as special considerations they may have based on their capabilities. Make sure everyone enrolled in your courses knows that participation will not result in certi cation unless all performance requirements are met.
You’ll find that most of the time you can accommodate divers with disabilities in your regularly scheduled courses. However, you may consider creating a special training package that includes all the extras an individual may need.
People with injuries at high levels of the spine may have an impaired body thermoregulation and are more susceptible to hypothermia and heat exhaustion. On a warm day, help individuals avoid overheating by having adequate shade, water spray bottles or moist towels and fans available. To avoid chilling problems, make sure divers have a correct tting exposure suit, even in tropical climates. Always try to enter the water and begin activities as soon as possible.
Reduced circulation caused by some physical impairments decreases healing ability, so that even minor bumps and scrapes could take months to heal, or worse, lead to hospitalization. Make sure divers with physical challenges always wear protective clothing, such as exposure suits, tennis shoes, booties, heavy pants, etc. in and around the pool, beach and on dive boats. When possible, pad pool sides and boat swim steps to provide further protection.
While standard dive equipment may work for many people, sometimes minor modifications are necessary to compensate for physical impairments. For example, amputees can benefit for removing the unnecessary part of a wet suit and resealing it for warmth and protection. Divers with limited or no leg mobility can use webbed gloves for more efficient swimming. Divers with no right or left arm use may switch clips, gauges and hoses around for better access with their usable arm. Divers with poor vision may benefit from a magnifying glass attached to a mask for gauge reading.
People with limited or no use of their legs may not be able to stand in shallow water. During con ned water sessions provide reasonable accommodations such as blocks, step stools or plastic chair for stability.
Participants with limited mobility may need assistance when entering and exiting pools, con ned water or open water sites. Use certified assistants to position wheelchairs, canes or crutches for easier entries and exits, and provide necessary lifting or steadying.
Make sure you and your certified assistants use proper lifting techniques. Remind assistants to adopt a stable position with their feet apart – one leg slightly forward to maintain balance and create a stable base for lifting. Be prepared to move their feet for stability if necessary, and keep their backs straight, maintaining a natural curve, and not twist their bodies when lifting. No one should lift or handle more than can be managed easily, and ask for help if needed.